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Dr. Howell’s Condensed Summary and Conclusions: Part 2

  1. The white blood cell is endowed with a much greater diversity of enzymes than other cells. The digestive characteristic of phagocytosis is then better understood in relation to the greater enzyme content.
  2. The protective value of fever is illustrated by the fact that bacterial activity decreases with the increase of a fever while enzyme activity actually increases during a fever.
  3. Available evidence is interpreted as signifying that the animal organism can sequester and utilize the enzymes of bacteria when food enzymes are not available. The innocuousness of such behavior is open to serious doubt.
  4. Of ten species of animals examined, human blood serum contained the smallest quantity of enzymes and yet the excretion of “spent” enzymes in human urine was about as great as in the animal urine. Considered together with other evidence, there is an implication that the discrepancy is related to man’s ingestion of a heat-treated enzyme-deficient diet.
  5. Maintenance of a normal blood serum enzyme level after experimental pancreatectomy supported by insulin mediation emphasized the subordinate role played by the pancreas and other enzyme-secreting organs as assembling, conditioning and disbursing organs and points to the tissues as the ultimate reservoir of enzymes.
  6. The synonymy of the subtle power operating in the organism with the vital factor of the enzyme complex, enzyme energy, enzyme activity, metabolic activity, vital energy, nerve force, resistance and life force is rendered probably by the nature of the evidence. Enzymes being capable of measurement, are the true yardstick of vitality.
  7. That the enzyme potential, vitality and “resistance” are one and the same entity is emphasized by the following evidence. The length of life is held to be inversely proportional to the rate of energy expenditure.
  8. a) Influence of temperature

(1) Higher temperatures increase the speed of enzyme reactions in vitro but brings about a correspondingly speedier inactivation of enzymes

(2) The higher temperatures in fevers cause a greater loss of enzymes in the urine

(3) Higher temperatures increase the tempo of life in fruit flies and water fleas, measured by quickened movement, but also shortens the life span correspondingly

(4) Evidence of approaching senility such as loss of hair, weight loss, decrease in length, wrinkling of the skin, sluggish movement and failure of reproduction can be made to appear sooner or later in life depending on the rate of energy dissipation  which is influenced by the temperature.

(5) Higher temperatures increase the frequency of the heart beat and CO2 (carbon dioxide) production in cold-blooded animals

(6) Higher temperatures increase the velocity of germination of seeds

(7) Higher temperatures increase the velocity of incubation of eggs

  1. b) Influence of food.

(1) The amount of food consumption regulates the quantity of enzymes engaged and consequentially determines the daily urinary toll. The amount of enzymes the organism must sacrifice daily through the urine is influenced by the meals, there being a regular cycle of rise and fall with an immediate rise after the meal.

(2) Greater food consumption markedly decreases the life span in fruit flies, water fleas, rats and trout. The implications for humans is consistent with the evidence.

(3) Greater quantity or variety of food increases the height of college students and increases the weight in albino rats. More organic defects appear in school children despite the appearance of better physical development.

  1. c) Influence of heredity.

(1) A long-lived type of fruit fly has a considerably higher content of esterase and protease than a short-lived type.

(2) The heredity influence in human longevity is generally recognized

  1. d) Both enzyme content and viability decrease with age
  2. e) Enzyme content of the whole macerated bodies of fruit flies, grasshoppers, beetles and rats is greatest in early maturation, decreasing to a minimum in old age.
  3. f) Enzyme content of human saliva and urine becomes markedly decreased in old age.
  4. g) Enzyme content of body fluids is diminished in many diseases
  5. h) Basal metabolism decreases in old age.
  6. i) There is an incompatibility between maximum growth and physical development on one the hand, and maximum length of life, good health, and freedom from physical defects on the other within most of human life.
  7. j) Changes in the chemical composition of the tissues in disease are similar to the changes occurring in old age.
  8. Jungle animals are free from degenerative disease. The formerly high mortality and morbidity in zoo animals in the early part of the 20th century was reduced dramatically with the feeding of their naturally occurring raw food diet.
  9. Changes in the weight of organs occasioned by disease are accompanied by compensatory weight alterations of all the organs and the development of related symptomatic phenomena.
  10. The appearance of disease in log-term, vitamin supplemented diet experiments utilizing heat-treated food presages the need of the organism for all food constituents, including food enzymes.
  11. Differences in the health, physical condition and life span between animals maintained on a heat-treated, vitamin supplemented diet, and animals on a raw, unheated food diet can only be ascribed to extremely heat-liable factors of which enzymes are the most sensitive.
  12. There is a striking contrast between native tribes that utilize heat-treated diets, such as the primitive American Indian, requiring a comprehensive Materi Medica of herbal remedies, and the raw food diet of the Eskimo with no medicines or apparent need for them.
  13. The legendary longevity of the Bulgarian peasants, ascribed by Metchnikoff to the innocuous intestinal bacteria, can be more satisfactorily explained on the basis of the enzymes contained in the predominantly raw diet of dairy products.
  14. Discrepancies between breast-fed and bottle-fed babies in mortality and morbidity, and the incidence of caries and differences in hemoglobin and bone content of calcium and phosphorus of rats fed on raw or pasteurized milk can be considerably ascribed to the moderate quantities of several enzymes contained in raw milk but which are almost completely lacking in pasteurized milk.
  15. The high health standards of the primitive isolated Eskimo contrasted with the soaring morbidity of the modernized Eskimo offers an unparalleled example of the utility of enzymes in the food supply. The diet of the primitive Eskimo contains large quantities of whole fish including all of the enzymes of gastric juice, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice; liver and stomach contents of small animals including gastric juice and its enzymes; and great amounts of raw meat. The remarkable absence of ketosis on a diet high in protein and fat and low in carbohydrate is related to the ingestion of enzymes with the food including lipase in seal fat.
  16. The therapeutic efficacy of several types of raw food diets has been established and its unique value found to reside in its enzyme content.
  17. Universal craving for salt on a heat treated diet is thought to be actuated by the necessity for increased enzyme activity which is stimulated by salt. A possible obnoxious influence of salt ingestion is indicated by the fact that on a raw food salt-less diet the urinary elimination of chlorides is very low while the blood chlorides remain exceptionally high.
  18. The hypoglycemic or hypoglycosuric action of enzymes has been demonstrated by oral or intravenous administration of enzyme preparations, by consumption of enzyme containing raw foods and by increasing the serum-enzyme level through experimental pancreatic or salivary duct ligation.
  19. Successful enzyme therapy of a number of ailments has been well documented. Orally administered, enzymes perform efficiently in the digestive tract and display considerable digestive activity even in the presence of a normal concentration of endogenous enzymes.


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