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Dr. Howell’s Condensed Summary and Conclusions: Part 1

  1. Enzymes are normal constituents of all living cellular matter.
  2. Enzymes are far more thermo-(heat) liable than vitamins.
  3. All wild animals live exclusively on raw food including a full quota of enzymes. Early man also lived on an exclusive raw food including wild meats.
  4. Modern cooking destroys more enzymes than did early forms of cooking.
  5. The enzyme complex is a biological entity composed of corporeal and incorporeal fractions. Enzymes and catalysts do not display all of the same features in common.
  6. Behavior of dead intestines (in research) as regards to the permeability of enzymes is no criteria as to the absorbability of enzymes in living intestine.
  7. Extensive absorbability of enzymes is proven by (but not limited to) the following  evidence:
  8. a) Yeast cells, bacteria and un-split proteins are all absorbed
  9. b) Orally administered enzymes are recovered in-tact in the urine
  10. c) Large quantities of enzymes are secreted into the gastro-intestinal tract, but only a small amount is recovered in the feces – evidence of recycling
  11. d) Loss of pancreatic enzymes by experimental or human pancreatic fistula is rapidly fatal, invalidating the supposition that extensive fecal excretion of enzymes is tolerable. On the contrary, death is not inevitable in experimental or human biliary fistula where no enzymes are sacrificed
  12. e) Oral administration of enzyme extracts to human patients results in improvement in systemic disease
  13. Enzymes in raw foods take priority in digestion over secreted enzymes. Exogenous or food enzymes become active the moment the cell wall is ruptured by mastication (chewing) and before endogenous or secreted enzymes have made an appearance in the stomach.
  14. Endogenous enzymes are secreted in response to specific stimuli by starch, protein, fat, etc.
  15. Metabolism and digestion exact a toll resulting in a depreciation of the enzyme potential and the excretion of “spent” enzymes in the urine, feces and sweat.
  16. If some digestion is performed by exogenous enzymes, the stimulus to secretion of endogenous enzymes is less intensive. Consequently, there is less drain on the enzyme potential of the organism.
  17. While the enzyme value of raw food is small, the sum total of enzymes available in a raw food diet consumed over a long period of years far exceeds both the enzyme value of digestive secretions and the whole body.
  18. Experimental evidence indicates that food enzymes do a measurable amount of digestive work in the test tube and in the organs of living animals.
  19. The technique of vitamin assaying fails to indicate that a diet which may be effective in maintaining health in early life of experimental animals can be equally effective in conserving health and preventing disease in middle and/or old age.
  20. The pancreas of herbivores (plant-eaters) is relatively only about one half as large as that of American adults. The salivary glands of herbivores do not secrete enzymes, while human salivary glands are highly active in secreting enzymes, particularly amylase (starch digesting enzyme for carbohydrates – grains etc.)
  21. The pancreas and salivary glands of Asians on a heat-treated, high carbohydrate rice-type diet, is relatively about 50% heavier than that of Americans. This hypertrophy (enlargement) of the pancreas and salivary glands is in response to the higher intake of enzyme-deficient carbohydrate foods and has also been confirmed in laboratory animals.
  22. An increase in metabolic activity such as muscular work, pregnancy and fever and an increase in cooked food intake is paralleled by the rise in the enzyme content of blood serum and an increased loss of “spent” enzymes in the urine.
  23. Observed subnormal enzyme content of body fluids in disease cannot ultimately be relegated to failure of pancreatic function since it is traceable to a fundamental default, i.e., failure of a heat-treated diet to supply the enzymes necessary to maintain the enzyme potential of the tissues.


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